Ultra High Density Plantation (UHDP) Mango
Mango Orchard Cultivation
Conventional technique, Medium Density technique, High-density technique, Ultra High-density technique (UHDP Mango) are the different plantation methods of mango.
In the conventional technique, the space between the planted trees is more, say, 10 meters, 40 plants per acre. The Traditional Planting technique permits the plant to grow naturally with no human intervention.
In Conventional Plantation, trees are planted at 10×10 square meter spacing, which means 40 trees per acre or 100 trees per hectare. However, it takes 10 to 15 years for trees to cover the entire canopy and become productive. This technique has been in use since long back.
Medium Density Plantation
In recent time, there’s not much time to stay up (10 to 15 years) for the orchards to give yield and hence to get the production early and get the quality and quantity of produce, spacing between trees was reduced to 5×5 meter. Now 160 plants per acre or 400 plants per hectare was adopted. This type of plantation is Medium Density Plantation.
High and Ultra High Density Plantation
In UHDP spacing is reduced to 4×2 meter, 3×2 meter, 4×3 meter, and even more dense. The spacing must be kept as per the soil type. The plant population at 4×3 m spacing is 333 numbers, 4×2 m spacing is 500 numbers and 3×2 m spacing is 674 numbers. Training and pruning are the souls of high-density and ultra-high density plantations.
The high-density and ultra-high density planting techniques provide coaching to grow and form the plant.
About UHDP Mango Plantation
Establishment period of plant in soil is two months onward planting. Once the plant grows and becomes two feet in height, the first cut is taken two feet from ground level; This is called primary training.
Due to the first training, three to four shoot initiates. These shoots grow up two times which takes four months to get a length of two feet. When these shoots mature, again top of these shoots is cut at two feet from where it was initiated; This is called secondary training.
Due to secondary training, three to four shoots start initiating below the cut taken. These shoots grow up two times which takes four months to get a length of two feet. When these shoots mature, again top of these shoots is cut at two feet from where it was initiated; This is called tertiary training.
Due to tertiary training, three to four nodes start beginning below the cut taken. These shoots grow up two times which takes four months to get a length of two feet. At every cut point number of shoots should be 2,3 or maximum 4 as per the space. Excess shoots other than healthy and strong shoots should be removed as early as possible during the period.
When these shoots mature, again top of these shoots is cut at two feet from where it was initiated. To reach this stage, the plants require 18 to 22 months. By following the training techniques, the tree has the shape of an open umbrella with 40 to 60 terminal shoots, branches, and such types of trees are perfect for giving production in coming season. Thus we can take the production of Mango in the third year by planting in the UHDP technique.
Comparison Of UHDP With Conventional Mango Plantation.
Conventional Mango Plantation
- Production starts after ten years.
- Peak production starts after 20 years.
- The plant canopy kept for the individual plant is covered after 20 years.
- No human interference during plant growth to give the shape.
- The activities like spraying and harvesting fruits become crucial after 15 years.
- Natural factors like heavy winds during fruit development matter much more.
- The commercial production life of mango trees is 50 to 60 years.
UHDP Mango Plantation
- Production starts after two years.
- Peak production begins after six years.
- The plant canopy is covered after six years.
- Manual training and pruning of plants, and thinning unnecessary shoots are the essential activities.
- Agricultural treatments like spraying and harvesting the fruits are not suffered.
- Commercial production life of the tree is 25 to 30 years.
- Labor use efficiency is very high.
- Agriculture inputs like fungicide, insecticide is very effective as the spray solution reaches every part of the tree.
- If trees are pruned every year then the attack of fungus and insects will be minimized.
- Quality of harvested fruits is very good.
- Wastage during harvest is nothing.
- We plant 12 to 17 times more plants.
- We get 2 to 3 times more production.
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Steps Before Mango Plantation For UHDP